EVIDENCIAS SOBRE LAS GRASAS EN LA DIETA Y ENFERMEDAD CORONARIA

Noé González Gallegos, Carmen Jiménez Ruiz, María Eugenia Milke Nájar

Resumen


La relación que existe entre la calidad de la grasa dietética y la enfermedad cardiovascular representa la base de las hipótesis sobre la dieta del corazón. Las recomendaciones actuales enfatizan la importancia de la calidad de la grasa por encima de la cantidad total ingerida. El propósito de este ensayo es analizar las evidencias sobre la asociación entre la ingesta de grasa y la enfermedad cardiovascular. Los ácidos grasos saturados y los ácidos grasos trans han mostrado incrementar el riesgo cardiovascular en varios estudios. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-6 y n-3 se han asociado con menor riesgo cardiovascular. Dentro de estos, el ácido linoleico muestra disminución del riesgo cardiovascular, mientras los ácidos grasos de cadena larga n-3 (eicosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico), están especialmente asociados con disminución del riesgo para eventos coronarios fatales. El papel del ácido a-linolénico es menos claro.


Palabras claves: enfermedad coronaria, ácidos grasos, dieta

cardiovascular disease, fatty acids, diet


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Page, I.H. 1954. Atherosclerosis; an introduction. Circulation Vol. 10, No.1:1-27

Keys, A. 1995. Mediterranean diet and public health: personal reflections. Am J Clin Nutr Vol.61, Supl. 6:1321S-1323S.

Ignatowski, A.I. 1909 Über die wirkung der tierschen einweisse auf der aorta. Virchow’s Arch Pathol Anat Vol. 198.: 248.

Anitschkow, N. and S Chalatow 1913. Über experimentelle cholesterol-insteatose und ihre bedeutung für die entstehung einiger pathologischer prozesse. Zentrbl Allg Pathol Pathol Anat Vol. 24.: 1-9.

Gofman, J.W., F Lindgren, H Elliot, W Mantz, J Hewitt and B Strisower 1950. The role of lipids and lipoproteins in atherosclerosis. Science Vol. 111.: 166-171.

Page, I.H., Op. cit

Kannel, W.B. and T Gordon 1970. The Framingham Study: an epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular disease. US Government Printing Office. Washington (DC).

Bang, H.O. and J Dyerberg 1972. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in Greenlandic west coast Eskimos. Acta Med Scand Vol. 192.: 85-94.

Dyerberg, J., HO Bang, N Hjorne 1975. Fatty acid composition of the plasma lipids in Greenland Eskimos. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 28, No. 9.: 958-966.

Bang, H.O., J Dyerberg and N Hjøorne 1976. The composition of food consumed by Greenland Eskimos. Acta Med Scand Vol. 200 No.1-2.: 69-73.

Dyerberg, J., HO Bang and N Hjorne 1977. Plasma cholesterol concentration in Caucasian Danes and Greenland West-coast Eskimos. Dan Med Bull Vol. 24, No. 2.: 52-5.

Bang, H.O., J Dyerberg and HM Sinclair 1980. The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland.Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 33, No. 12.: 2657-61.

Fey, R.E. 1998. Statins for prevention of stroke. Lancet Vol. 352,: 144-5.

12. Laufs, U., F Custodis and M Böhm 2006. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in chronic heart failure: potential mechanisms of benefit and risk. Drugs Vol. 66, No. 2.: 145-54.

MacMahon, S., R Peto, J Cutler, R Collins, P Sorlie, J Neaton, T Abbott, J Godwin, A Dyer and J Stamler 1990. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease, part I: prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet Vol. 31, No. 335(8692).: 765–74.

Collins, R., R Peto, S MacMahon, P Hebert, NH Fiebach, KA Eberlein, J Godwin, N Gixilbash, JO Taylor and CH Hennekens 1990. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease, part II: short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomized drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet Vol. 335,: 827-38.

Eastern stroke and coronary heart disease collaborative research group 1998. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and stroke in eastern Asia. Lancet Vol. 352,:1801-7.

Lehninger, A.L., DL Nelson and MM Cox 1993. Principles of biochemistry. 2a ed. Worth Publishers Inc. New York.

Idem.

Idem.

Idem.

Linder, M.C. 1985. Nutrición. Aspectos bioquímicos, metabólicos y clínicos. EUNSA. Pamplona.

Akoh, C.C. and DB Min, eds 2002. Foods lipids: chemistry, nutrition and biotechnology, 2a ed. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York.

Jungerman, K. and H Möhler, 1984. Bioquímica. Pirámide. Madrid.

Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., P Therond, JL Beaudeux, J Peynet, A Legrand and J Delattre 1999. High density lipoproteins (HDL) and the oxidative hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Clin Chem Lab Med Vol. 37,: 939-48.

Lamarche, B., S Rashid and GF Lewis 1999. HDL metabolism in hypertriglyceridemic states: an overview. Clin Chim Acta Vol. 286,:145-61.

Mataix, J. 2002. Nutrición y alimentación humana. Ergón Creación. Majadahonda.

McGee, D.L., DM Reed, K Yano, A Kagan and J Tilloston 1984. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease in the Honolulu Heart Program. Relationship to nutrient intake. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 119,: 667-76.

Kushi, L.H., RA Lew, FJ Stare, CR Ellison, M Lozy, G Bourke, et al 1985. Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. The Ireland-Boston Diet-Heart study. New Engl J Med Vol. 312,: 811-8.

Posner, B.M., JL Cobb, AJ Belanger, LA Cupples, RB D’Agostino and J Stokes 1991. Dietary lipid predictors of coronary heart disease in men. The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med Vol. 151,: 1181-7.

Goldbourt, U., S Yaari and JH Medalie 1993. Factors predictive of long-term coronary heart disease mortality among 10,059 male Israeli civil servants and municipal employees. A 23-year mortality follow-up in the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study. Cardiology Vol. 82,: 100-21.

Esrey, K.L., L Joseph and SA Grover 1996. Relationship between dietary intake and coronary heart disease mortality: lipid research clinics prevalence follow-up study. J Clin Epidemiol Vol. 49,: 211-6.

Mann, J.I., PN Appleby, TJ Key and M Thorogood 1997. Dietary determinants of ischaemic heart disease in health conscious individuals. Heart Vol. 78,: 450-5.

Kris-Etherton, P. and S Yu 1997 Individual fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: human Studies. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 65, Supl. 5.: 1628S-1644S.

Temme, E., RP Mensik and G Hornstra 1996. Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 63,: 897-903.

Yu, S., J Derr, TD Etherton and P Kris-Etherton 1995. Plasma cholesterol predictive equations demonstrate that stearic acid is neutral and monounsaturated fatty acids are hypocholesterolemic. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 61, No. 5.: 1129-39.

Idem.

Aro, A., M Jauhiainen, R Partanen, I Salminen and M Mutaten 1997. Stearic acid, trans fatty acids, and Dairy fat: effects on serum and lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein (a), and lipid transfer proteins in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 65,: 1419-26.

Mitropoulos, K.A., GJ Miller, JC Martin, BEA Reeves and J Cooper 1994. Dietary fat induces changes in factor VII coagulant activity through effects on plasma free stearic acid concentration. Arterioscler Thromb Vol. 14,: 214-22.

Ferguson, J.C., N Mackay and GP McNicol 1970. Effect of feeding fat on fibrinolysis, Stypven time, and platelet aggregation in Africans, Asians, and Europeans. J Clin Pathol Vol. 23,: 580-5.

Hu, F.B., MJ Stampfer, JE Manson, E Rimm, GA Colditz, BA Rosner, et al 1997. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. New Engl J Med Vol. 337,: 1491-9.

Jacobs, D., G Blackburn, M Higins, D Reed, H Iso, G McMillan, et al 1992. Report of the Conference on Low Blood Cholesterol: Mortality Associations. Circulation Vol. 86,: 1046-60.

Grundy, S.M., D Bilheimer, H Blackburn, WV Brown, POJ Kwiterovich, F Mattson, et al 1982. Rationale of the diet-heart statement of the American Heart Association. Report of Nutrition Committee. Circulation Vol. 65,: 839A-854A.

Pietinen, P., A Ascherio, P Korkohen, AM Hartman, WC Willet, D Albanes, et al 1997. Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 145,: 876-87.

Jacobsen, M.U., K Overvard, J Dyerberg, M Schroll and BL Heitmann 2004. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 160,: 141-9.

Öhrvall, M., L Berglund, I Salminen, H Lithell, A Aro and B Vessby 1996. The serum cholesterol ester fatty acid composition but not the serum concentration of alpha tocopherol predicts the development of myocardial infarction in 50-year-old men: 19 years follow-up. Atherosclerosis Vol. 127,: 65-71.

Wang, L., AR Folsom and JH Eckfeldt, 2003. Plasma fatty acid composition and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle aged adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis Vol. 13,: 256-66.

Albert, C.M., H Campos, MJ Stampfer, PM Ridker, JE Manson, WC Willet, et al 2002. Blood levels of longchain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death. New Engl J Med Vol. 346, No. 15.: 1113-8.

Esrey, K.L., et. al., Op. cit.

. Xu, J., S Eilat-Adar, C Loria, U Goldbourt, BV Howard, RR Fabsitz, et al, 2006. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease: the Strong Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 84,: 894-902.

Posner, B.M., et. al., Op. cit.

Esrey, K.L., et. al., Op. cit.

Pietinen, P., et. al., Op. cit.

Mensink, R.P. and MB Katan, 1992. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a metaanalysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler and Thromb Vol. 12,: 911-9.

Garg, A., SM Grundy and M Koffer, 1992. Effect of high carbohydrate intake on hyperglycemia, islet cell function, and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM. Diabetes Care Vol. 15,: 1572-80.

Parthasarathy, S., JC Khoo, E Miller, J Barnett, JL Witztum and D Steinberg, 1990. Low density lipoproteins rich in oleic acid is protected against oxidative modification: Implications for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA Vol. 87,: 3894-8.

Freese, R., M Mutanen, LM Valsta and I Salminem, 1994. Comparison of the effects of two diets rich in monounsaturated PUFAs differing in their linoleic/α-linolenic acid ratio on platelet aggregation. Thromb Haemost Vol. 71,: 73-7.

James, M.J., RA Gibson and LG Cleland, 2000. Dietary polyunsaturated PUFAs and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 71,: 343S-348S.

Shaikh, S.R. and M Edidin, 2006. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, membrane organization, T cells, and antigen presentation. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 84,: 1277-89.

Freese, R., et. al., Op. cit.

Kushi, L.H., et. al., Op. cit.

Goldbourt, U., et. al., Op. cit.

Hu, F.B. et. al., Op. cit.

Laaksonen, D.E., K Nyyssönen, L Niskanen, TH Rissanen and JT Salonen, 2005. Dietary and serum linoleico and polyunsaturated fatty acids predict cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men. Arch Intern Med Vol. 165,: 193-9.

Shekelle, R.B., AM Shyrock, O Paul, M Lepper, J Stambler, S Liu, et al, 1981. Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric Study. New Engl J Med Vol. 304,: 65-70.

Dolecek, T.A., 1992. Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med Vol. 200,: 177-82.

Hu, F.B., et. al., Op. cit.

Idem.

Charnock, J.S., K Sundram, MY Abeywardena, PL McLennan and DT Tan. 1991. Dietary fats and oils in cardiac arrhythmia in rats. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 53,: 1047S-9S.

Grundy, S.M., et. al., Op. cit.

Sacks, F. 1994. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Overview. J Cardiovasc Risk Vol. 1,: 3-8.

Calder, P.C. 2001. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. Lipids Vol. 36,: 1007-24.

Lahoz, C., R Alonso, JM Ordovas, A Lopez-Farre, M De Oya and P Mata 1997. Effects of dietary fat saturation on eicosanoid production, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. Eur J Clin Invest Vol. 27,: 780-7.

Storlien, L.H., AD Kriketos, AB Jenkins, LA Baur, DA Pan, LC Tapsell, et al, 1997. Does dietary fat influence insulin action? Ann NY Acad Sci Vol. 827,: 287-301.

Knapp, H.R. 1997. Dietary fatty acids in human thrombosis and hemostasis. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 65,: 1687S-1698S.

Abeywardena, M.Y., PL McLennan and JS Charnock, 1991. Differential effects of dietary fish oil on myocardial prostaglandin 12 and thromboxane A2 production. Am Physiol Vol. 260,: H379-85.

Charnock, J.S., et. al., Op. cit.

Laaksonen, D.E., TA Lakka, HM Lakka, K Nyyssönen, T Rissanen, LK Niskanen, et al, 2002. Serum fatty acid composition predicts development of impaired fasting glycaemia and diabetes in middle aged men. Diabetic Med Vol. 19,: 456-64.

Lovejoy, J. and M DiGiorolamo, 1992. Habitual dietary intake and insulin sensitivity in lean and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 55,: 1174-9.

Lovejoy, J.C. 1999. Dietary fatty acids and insulin resistance. Curr Atheroscler Vol. 1,: 215-20.

Laaksonen, D.E., et. al., Op. cit.

Goldbourt, U., et. al., Op. cit.

Ascherio, A. 2002. Epidemiologic studies on dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Am J Med Vol. 113,: 9-12.

Berry, E.M. 2001. Who’s afraid of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids? Methodological considerations for assessing whether they are harmful. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis Vol. 11,: 181-8.

Goldbourt, U., et. al., Op. cit.

Hu, F.B., et. al., Op. cit.

Öhrvall, M., et. al., Op. cit.

Laaksonen, D.E.,et. al., Op. cit.

Ascherio, A., Op. cit.

Vessby, B., A Aro, E Skarfors, L Berglund, I Salminen and H Lithell, 1994. The risk to develop NIDDM is related to the fatty acid composition of the serum cholesterol esters. Diabetes Vol. 43,: 1353-7.

Salmeron, J., FB Hu, JE Manson, MJ Stampfer, GA Colditz, EB Rimm, et al. 2001. Dietary fat intake end risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 73,: 1019-26.

Salmeron, J., FB Hu, JE Manson, et al. 2001. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 73,: 1019-26.

Öhrvall, M., et. al., Op. cit.

Wang, L., et. al., Op. cit.

Miettinen, T.A., V Naukkarinen, JK Huttunen, S Mattila and T Kumlin. 1982. Fatty-acid composition of serum lipids predicts myocardial infarction. R Med J (Clin Res Ed) Vol. 285,: 993-6.

Salonen, J.T., R Salonen, I Penttilä, J Herranen, M Jauhiainen, M Kantola, et al. 1985. Serum fatty acids, apolipoproteins, selenium and vitamin antioxidants and the risk of death from coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol Vol. 56,: 226-31.

Iso, H., S Sato, U Umemura, M Kud, K Koike, A Kitamura, et al. 2002. Linoleic acid, other fatt acids, and the risk of stroke. Stroke Vol. 33,: 2086-93.

Anderson, L., M Dibble, H Mitchell and I Ryberger. 1997. Nutrición humana. Principios y aplicaciones. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Bellaterra.

Brouwer, I.A., MB Katan and PL Zock. 2004. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduce risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increase prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr Vol. 134,: 919-22.

Mozaffarian, D., A Ascherio, FB Hu, MJ Stampfer, WC Willet, DS Siscovick, et al. 2005. Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation Vol. 111,: 157-64.

Williams, C.M. and G Burdge. 2006. Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources. Proc Nutr Soc Vol. 65,: 42-50.

Mozaffarian, D., et. al., Op. cit.

Öhrvall, M., et. al., Op. cit.

Törnwall, M.E., I Salminen, A Aro, P Pietinen, J Haukka, D Albanes, et al. 1996. Effect of serum and dietary fatty acids on the short-term risk of acute myocardial infarction in male smokers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis Vol. 6,: 73-80.

Simon, J.A., ML Hodgkins, WS Browner, JM Neuhaus, JT Bernert and SB Hulley, 1995. Serum fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 142,: 469-76.

Lemaitre, R.N., IB King, D Mozaffarian, LH Kuller, RP Tracy and DS Siscovick, 2003. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 77,: 319-25.

Simon, J.A., J Fong, JT Bernert and WS Browner 1995. Serum fatty acids and the risk of stroke. Stroke Vol. 26,: 778-82.

Lee, J.H., JH O’Keefe, CJ Lavie, R Marchioli and WS Harris, 2008. Omega-3 fatty acids for cardioprotection. Mayo Clin Proc Vol. 83, No. 3: 324-32.

Idem.

He, K., Y Song, ML Daviglus, K Liu, L Van Horn, AR Dyer, et al. 2004. Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Circulation Vol. 109,: 2705-11.

Idem.

Mozaffarian, D., RN Lemaitre, LH Kuller, GL Burke, RP Tracy and DS Siscovick, 2003. Cardiac benefits of fish consumption may depend on the type of fish meal consumed: the cardiovascular health study. Circulation Vol. 107,: 1372-7.

Iso, H., M Kobayashi, J Ishihara, S Sasaki, K Okada, Y Kita, et al. 2006. Intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study cohort. Circulation Vol. 113,: 195-202.

Osler, M., AH Andreasen and S Hoidrup, 2003. No inverse association between fish consumption and risk of death from all-causes, and incidence of coronary hearth disease in middle-aged, Danish adults. J Clin Epidemiol Vol. 56,: 274-9.

Folsom, A.R. and Z Demissie, 2004. Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, ad mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 160,: 1005-10.

Hu, F.B., E Cho, KM Rexrode, CM Albert and JE Manson 2003. Fish and long-chain ω-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women. Circulation Vol. 107,: 1852-7.

Erkkilä, A.T., AH Lichtenstein, D Mozaffarian and DM Herrington, 2004. Fish intake is associated with reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 80,: 626-32.

Järvinen, R., P Kenkt, H Rissanen and A Reunanen 2006. Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids an the risk of coronary heart mortality in men and women. Br J Nutr Vol. 95,:824-9.

Rissanen, T., S Voutilainen, K Nyyssönen, TA Lakka and JT Salonene 2000. Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study. Circulation Vol. 102,: 2677-9.

Mozaffarian, D., et. al., Op. cit.

Osler, M., et. al., Op. cit.

Simon, J.A., et. al., Op. cit.

Lee, J.H., et. al., Op. cit.

Albert, C.M., et. al., Op. cit.

Lemaitre, R.N., et. al., Op. cit.

Harris, W.S., WC Poston and CK Haddock, 200. Tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease events. Atherosclerosis Vol. 193,: 1-10.

Miettinen, T.A., et. al., Op. cit.

Rissanen, T., et. al., Op. cit.

Hallgren, C.G., G Hallmans, JH Janssson, SL Marklund, F Huhtasaari, A Schutz, et al. 2001. Markers of high fish intake are associated with decrease risk of a first myocardial infarction. Br J Nutr Vol. 86,: 397-404.

Öhrvall, M., et. al., Op. cit.

Törnwall, M.E., et. al., Op. cit.

Albert, C.M., et. al., Op. cit.

Erkkilä, A.T., SLehto, K Pyörälä and MIJ Uusitupa 2003. n-3 fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 78.:65-71.

Siscovick, D.S., TE Raghunathan, I King, S Weinmann, KG Wicklund, J Albright, et al. 1995. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA Vol. 274, No. 17.: 1363-7.

Albert, C.M., et. al., Op. cit.

Miettinen, T.A., et. al., Op. cit.

Törnwall, M.E., et. al., Op. cit.

Simon, J.A., et. al., Op. cit.

Rissanen, T., et. al., Op. cit.

Lichtenstein, A.H., LJ Appel, M Brands, M Carnethon, S Daniels, HA Franch, et al. 2006. Summary of American Heart Association diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Vol. 26,: 2186-91.

Wang, L., et. al., Op. cit.

Lemaitre, R.N., et. al., Op. cit.

Hallgren, C.G., et. al., Op. cit.

Damsgaard, C., H Frokiaer, AD Andersen and L Lauritzen, 2008. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men. J Nutr Vol. 138, No.6.: 1061-6.

He, K., Y Song, ML Daviglus, K Liu, L Van Horn, AR Dyer, et al. 2004. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke Vol. 35,: 1538-42.

Myint, P.K., AA Welch, SA Bingham, RN Luben, NJ Wareham, NE Day, et al. 2006. Habitual fish consumption and risk of incident stroke: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk

prospective population study. Public Health Nutr Vol. 9,: 882-88.

Wennberg, M., IA Bergdahl, B Stegmayr, G Hallmans, T Lundh, S Skerfving, et al. 2007. Fish intae, merury, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of stroke in Northern Sweden. Br J Nutr Vol. 98,: 1038-45.

Burr, M.L., AM Fehily, JF Gilbert, S Rogers, RM Holliday, PM Sweetnam, et al. 1989. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fiber intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet Vol. 2, No. 8666.: 757-61.

Marchioli, R., F Barzi, E Bomba, C Chieffo, D Di Gregorio, R Di Mascio, et al. 2002. GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo ITaliano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)- Prevenzione. Circulation Vol. 105, No.16.: 1897-903.

Yokoyama, M., H Origasa, M Matsuzaki, Y Matsuzawa, Y Saito, Y Ishikawa, et al. 2007. Japan EPA lipid intervention study (JELIS) Investigators. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patient (JELIS): a randomized open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet Vol. 369, No. 9567.: 1090-8.

Ness, A.R., J Hughes, PC Elwood, E Whitley, GD Smith and ML Burr, 2002. The long-term effect of dietary advice in en with coronary disease: follow-up of the Diet and Reinfarction trial (DART). Eur J Clin Nutr Vol. 56, No. 6.: 512-8.

Burr, M.L., PA Ashfield-Watt, FD Dunstan, M Fehily, P Breay, T Ashton, et al. 2003. Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr Vol. 57, no. 2.: 193-200.

Nilsen, D.W., G Albrektsen, K Landmark, S Moen, T Aarsland and L Woie 2001. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum mtriaciylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr Vol. 74, No. 1.: 50-6.

Hu, F.B., MJ Stampfer, JE Manson, A Ascherio, GA Colditz, FE Speizer, CH Hennekens, and WC Willet 1999. Dietary saturated fat and their food sources in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am

J Clin Nutr Vol 70,: 1001-8.

Goldbourt, U., et. al., Op. cit.

Hu, F.B., et. al., Op. cit.

Laaksonen, D.E.,et. al., Op. cit.

Shekelle, R.B., et. al., Op. cit.

Hu, F.B., et. al., Op. cit

Pietinen, P., E Vartianen, R Seppänen, A Ar and P Puska, 1996. Changes in diet in Finland from 1972 to 1992: impact on coronary disease risk. Prev Med Vol. 25,: 243-50.

Mensik, R.P., MB Katan, 1990. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy subjects. N Engl J Med Vol. 323,: 439-45.

Zaloga, G.P., KA Harvey, W Stillwel and R Siddiqui, 2006. Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Nutr Clin Pract Vol. 21,: 505-12.

Fernandez, M.L. and KL West. 2005. Mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids modulate plasma lipids. J Nutr Vol. 135,: 2075-8.

Mensik, R.P., et. al., Op. cit.

Katan, B.M., RP Mensik and PL Zock, 1995. Trans fatty acids and their effect in lipoproteins in humans. Annu Rev Nutr Vol. 15,: 473-493.

Mozaffarian, D. 2006. Trans fatty acids - effects on systemic inflammation and endothelial function. Atheroscler Suppl Vol. 7, No. 2.: 29-32

Hu, F.B. and WC Wilet, 2002. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA Vol. 288,: 2569- 2578.

Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board 2002. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) for Men and Women 30 Years of Age. National Academies. Washington.

Villalpando, S., I Ramírez, D Bernal y V De la Cruz, 2007. Grasas, dieta y salud. Tablas de composición de ácidos grasos de alimentos frecuentes en la dieta mexicana. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. México


Contador de visualizaciones:

  • Resumen : 630 vistas.
  • PDF : 28 vistas.
  • Enlaces refback

    • No hay ningún enlace refback.


    Copyright (c) 2009 Noé González Gallegos, Carmen Jiménez Ruiz, María Eugenia Milke Nájar

    Licencia de Creative Commons
    Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.

    RESPYN, Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición, es una revista electrónica, con periodicidad trimestral, editada y publicada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León a través de la Facultad de Salud Pública y Nutrición. Domicilio de la Publicación: Aguirre Pequeño y Yuriria, Col. Mitras Centro, Monterrey, N.L., México CP 64460. Teléfono: (81) 13 40 48 90 y 8348 60 80 (en fax). E-mail: respyn.faspyn@uanl.mx , URL: http://www.respyn.uanl.mx/. Editor Responsable: Dr. en CS. Esteban Gilberto Ramos Peña. Reserva de derechos al uso exclusivo No. 04-2014-102111594800-203, de fecha 21 de octubre de 2016. ISSN 1870 - 0160. Ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Registro de marca ante el Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial: No. 1,183,059. Responsable de la última actualización de este número Dr. Esteban Gilberto Ramos Peña, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L., México.