DESNUTRICION EN LOS ADULTOS MAYORES: LA IMPORTANCIA DE SU EVALUACIÓN Y APOYO NUTRICIONAL

María del Consuelo Velásquez Alva

Resumen


El pobre estado de nutrición en la población anciana es un área de preocupación importante. La pérdida de peso no intencional o involuntaria y la desnutrición en esta etapa de la vida, contribuyen a un decline progresivo en la salud. El riesgo nutricional aumenta en ancianos quienes están enfermos,  son pobres y en aquellos que tienen un acceso limitado al cuidado médico. Durante el proceso del envejecimiento, la desnutrición, se asocia a diversas alteraciones funcionales, su etiología es multifactorial y puede ser el resultado de una o más variables de índole social, funcional, patológica o psicológica y en este contexto se subraya la importancia que tiene la educación nutricional durante la senectud. La evaluación nutricional en los pacientes geriátricos permite identificar personas en riesgo de desnutrición para brindarles apoyo nutricio que es muy importante.

 

Abstract
The poor state of nutrition in the elderly is an area of major concern. Weight loss and unintentional or involuntary malnutrition at this stage of life, contribute to a progressive decline in health. Nutritional risk increases in the elderly who are sick, poor and those who have limited access to health care. During the process of aging, malnutrition is associated with various functional disorders, their etiology is multifactorial and may be the result of one or more variables of social, functional, pathological or psychological, and in this context stresses the importance of nutrition education during senescence. Nutritional assessment in geriatric patients to identify people at risk of malnutrition by providing nutritional support is very important.

 

Palabras Claves: desnutrición, adultos mayores, evaluación nutricional, nutritional assessment. 

 


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Evans C. 2005. Malnutrition in the elderly: a multifactorial failure to thrive.The Permanente J;9,3:38-41.

Ennis BW, S Saffel-Shrier and H Verson 2001. Diagnosing malnutrition in the elderly. Nurse Pract; 26,3:5256.

Morley JE, AD Mooradian and AJ Silver. 1998. Nutrition in the elderly. Ann Intern Med; 109: 890-904.

Chen CC, LS Schilling and CH Lyder. 2001. A concept analysis of malnutrition in the elderly. Journal of Advanced Nursing;36:131-142.

Chapman IM. 2006. Nutritional disorders in the elderly. Med Clin North Am.;90,5:887-907.

Ahmed T and N Haboubi 2010. Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clin Interv Aging.; 5: 207–216.

Velázquez-Alva MC, SG Rodríguez-Nocedal y ML Hernández-Caballero. 2003. La importancia de la educación nutricional en los ancianos. Nutrición Clínica;6,1:84-88.

Morley JE. 2002. Pathophysiology of anorexia. Clin Geriatr Med;18,4:661-673.

Ellia M, editor. 2003. Screening for Malnutrition. A multidisciplinary Responsibility. Development and use of the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ (‘MUST’) for Adults. British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Knodrup J, SP Allison, M Ellia, B Vellas and M Plautg 2003. ESPEN guidelines for nutrition screening 2002. Clin Nutr.;22:415–421.

Stratton RJ, A Hackston, D Longmore, et al. 2004. Malnutrition in hospital outpatients and inpatients: prevalence, concurrent validity and ease of use of the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ (‘MUST’) for adults. Br J Nutr.;92:799–808

Kondrup J, SP Allison, M Elia, and M Plauthh. 2003. ESPEN Guidelines for nutrition screening 2002. Clinical nutrition;22,4:415-421.

Guigoz Y, B Vellas and JP Garry. 1994. Mini Nutritional Assessment: A practical assessment tool for grading the nutritional state of elderly patients. Facts and Research in Gerontology:S15- S59.

Guigoz Y, B Vellas and PJ Garry. 1996. Assessing the nutritional status of the elderly: the mini Nutritional assessment as part of the geriatric evaluation. Nutr Rev:54 S59-65

Bauer JM, MJ Kaiser, P Anthony, Y Guigoz and CC Sieber. 2008. The Mini Nutritional Assessment--its history, today's practice, and future perspectives. Nutr Clin Pract.;23,4:388-96.

Tsai AC, CS Ho and MC Chang. 2008. Assessing the prevalence of malnutrition with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in a nationally representative sample of elderly Taiwanese. J Nutr Health Aging. Apr;12(4):239-43.

De la Montaña Miguélez J, C Areal Salve and M Míguez Bernárdez. 2009. Nutritional risk in noinstitutionalized older, determined for the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). Arch Latinoam Nutr.;59,4:390-5.

Amirkalali B, F Sharifi, H Fakhrzadeh, M Mirarefin, M Ghaderpanahi and B Larijani. 2010. Evaluation of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in the elderly, Tehran, Iran. Public Health Nutr.;13,9:1373-9.

Kulnik D and I Elmadfa. 2008. Assessment of the nutritional situation of elderly nursing home residents in Vienna. Ann Nutr Metab.;52 Suppl 1:51-3.

Hudgens J and B Langkamp. 2004. The Mini Nutritional Assessment as an assessment tool in elders in longterm care. Nutr Clin Pract;19:463-470.

Kaiser MJ, JM Bauer, C Rämsch, W Uter, et al 2010. Mini Nutritional Assessment International Group. Frequency of malnutrition in older adults: a multinational perspective using the mini nutritional assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc.;58,9:1734-8.

Velázquez Alva MC, CME Irigoyen, G Carballo y RLM Gutiérrez. 2007. Evaluación del estado de nutrición en pacientes geriátricos: antropometría, composición corporal, auto percepción del estado de salud e impacto sobre las actividades de la vida diaria. Nut Clin;10:11-18

Kaiser MJ, JM Bauer, C Ramsch, W Uter, et al 2009. MNA-International Group. Validation of the Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF): a practical tool for identification of nutritional status. J Nutr Health Aging.;13,9:782-8.

Cohendy R, LZ Rubenstein and JJ Eledjam. 2001. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form for preoperative nutritional evaluation of elderly patients. Aging.;13,4:293-7.

Salvi F, R Giorgi, A Grilli, et al 2008. Mini Nutritional Assessment (short form) and functional decline in older patients admitted to an acute medical ward. Aging Clin Exp Res.;20,4:322-8.

WHO 1995. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry Report of a WHO Expert Committee WHO Technical Report Series 854.Geneva: World Health Organization;.

World Health Organization. 1992. Uses and interpretation of anthropometry in the elderly for the assessment of physical status. Interim draft report of nutrition unit. Ginebra: WHO, The Subcommittee on the elderly,.

Kuczmarski MF, RJ Kuczmarski and M Najjar. 2000. Descriptive anthropometric reference data for older Americans. J Am Diet Assoc.;100,1:59-66.

Barbosa AR, JM Souza, ML Lebrao, R Laurenti, F Marucci M de 2005. Anthropometry of elderly residents in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica.;21,6:1929-38.

Santos JL, Albala C, Lera L, Garcia C, Arroyo P, Perez-Bravo F, Angel B, Pelaez M. 2004. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly population of Santiago, Chile. Nutrition.;20,5:452-7.

De Menezes TN, de Fatima Nunes Marucci M. 2005. Anthropometry of elderly people living in geriatric institutions, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica.;39,2:169-75.

Velázquez Alva MC, CME Irigoyen, ZM Zepeda, VM Sánchez, P García Cisneros y ML Castillo. 2004. Anthropometric measurements of a sixty-year-old Mexican urban group. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging ;8,5:350-554

Velázquez-Alva MC, L Castillo-Martínez, E Irigoyen-Camacho, MA Zepeda-Zepeda, LM Gutiérrez-Robledo and P Cisneros-Moysen. 1996. An anthropometric study of a group of elderly men and women of Mexico City. Salud Publica Mex. ;38,6:466-74

Bernal-Orozco MF, B Vizmanos, C Hunot, M Flores-Castro, D Leal-Mora, A Cells and JD Fernández-Ballart. 2010. Equation to estimate body weight in elderly Mexican women using anthropometric measurements. Nutr Hosp. ;4:648-55.

Gutiérrez LM, MC Llaca, L Cervantes, MC Velasquez Alva, ME Irigoyen and M Zepeda. 2001. Overweight in elderly Mexican women of a marginal community. J Nutr Health Aging.;5,4:256-8.

Velázquez Alva MC. 2010. Parámetros antropométricos del adulto mayor. Capítulo 28: 326-337. En: Perez Lizaur AB y Picardi Pablo Editores. Gerontología y nutrición del adulto mayor. Editorial Mc Graw Hill

Baumgartnern RN, PM Stauber , D McHugh, KM Koehler and PJ Garry. 1995. Cross-sectional age differences in body composition in persons 60+ years of age. Journals of Gerontology; 50, 6: 307-316,

Bonnefoy M, M Jauffret, T Kostka and JF Jusot. 2002. Usefulness of calf circumference measurement in assessing the nutritional state of hospitalized elderly people. Gerontology., 48,3:162-169

Rolland Y, V Lauwers-Cances, M Courtnot, et al 2003. Sarcopenia, calf circumference and physical function of elderly women: A cross.sectional study. J Am Geriatr Soc; 51,8:1120

Velázquez Alva MC, et al. 2007, Op. Cit.

Portero-McLellan KC, C Staudt, FR Silva, et al . 2010. The use of calf circumference measurement as an anthropometric tool to monitor nutritional status in elderly inpatients. J Nutr Health Aging.;14,4:266-70.

Milne AC, Potter J, A Vivanti and A Avenell 2009. Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk from malnutrition. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003288. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003288.pub3.

Korner U, A Bondolfi, E Buhler, et al 2006. Ethical and legal aspects of enteral nutrition. Clin Nutr.;25,2:196202.

Volkert D, YN Berner, E Berry, et al 2006. ESPEN Guidelines on enteral nutrition: geriatrics. Clin Nutr;25:330360.

Sobotka L, SM Schneider, YN Berner et al. 2009. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Geriatrics. Clinical Nutrition;28:461-466.


Contador de visualizaciones:

  • Resumen : 1522 vistas.
  • PDF : 84 vistas.
  • Enlaces refback

    • No hay ningún enlace refback.


    Copyright (c) 2011 María del Consuelo Velásquez Alva

    Licencia de Creative Commons
    Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.

    RESPYN, Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición, es una revista electrónica, con periodicidad trimestral, editada y publicada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León a través de la Facultad de Salud Pública y Nutrición. Domicilio de la Publicación: Aguirre Pequeño y Yuriria, Col. Mitras Centro, Monterrey, N.L., México CP 64460. Teléfono: (81) 13 40 48 90 y 8348 60 80 (en fax). E-mail: respyn.faspyn@uanl.mx , URL: http://www.respyn.uanl.mx/. Editor Responsable: Dr. en CS. Esteban Gilberto Ramos Peña. Reserva de derechos al uso exclusivo No. 04-2014-102111594800-203, de fecha 21 de octubre de 2016. ISSN 1870 - 0160. Ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Registro de marca ante el Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial: No. 1,183,059. Responsable de la última actualización de este número Dr. Esteban Gilberto Ramos Peña, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L., México.